King Arthur mystery: How battle betrayal 'proves identity of legendary warrior'

While King Arthur is one of the most popular figures in English folklore, historians still debate whether he existed. The legendary warrior was believed to have fought-off Saxon invaders with the Knights of the Round Table and armed with his magical sword Excalibur. In a number of later romanticised depictions of King Arthur, he was claimed to have been bound by a strict moral code of chivalry and honour. Discovering the truth about the mythical UK hero, who is said to have lived during the fifth and sixth centuries, is no easy feat. But historians claim to have found a warrior whose victories in battle, leadership and nobility could measure up to the almighty legacy attributed to King Arthur.

Professor Christopher Synder, of Marymount University, pointed to a Riothamus, a Romano-British military leader, who was described as “King of the Britons” in historical accounts.

When translated from Latin to Ancient English his name becomes ‘Rigotamus’, which means “Highest King”.  

Geoffrey Ashe, Author of ‘The Discovery of King Arthur’, claimed that this was not an unusual tradition in history because the name Genghis Khan meant ‘Supreme Leader’ and he was actually born Temujin Borjigin.

However, he explained that to be attributed such a name and for it to have been documented in accounts alludes to Riothamus’ influence and power.

One document from 100 years after he ruled, detailed how Riothamus was asked to help France in a battle against the Visigoth, an early Germanic tribe.

He was reported to have travelled with 12,000 men to modern day Brittany and then headed to Burgundy, where he met an unfortunate end. 

“The man who betrayed him is called ‘Morvandos’, someone who knew the story from both points of view ran the names together.” 

Morvandos is a combination of the name Arvandos, who betrayed Riothamus, and Mordred, the man who in folklore double crossed King Arthur – which historians consider a deliberate decision to allude to the hero’s muse. 

Somewhere in Avallon it’s believed King Arthur lies resting – waiting for England to need him once more. 

The location is believed to hold significance in Riothamus’ story too.

Mr Ashe said: “There is one real place called Avallon, which is in Burgundy, and the last we see of Riothamus is him actually going in that direction trying to escape from the Visigoths. 

“So it is quite possible that he died in Avallon. Quite genuinely, he may even be buried there.”



Dictionary.com adds Black, as it refers to a person, in massive update around definitions that reflect identity and race


The dictionary website announced an update of more than 15,000 entries, refining and adding terms specifically related to race, identity, sexual orientation, and mental health.

“The work of a dictionary is more than just adding new words. It’s an ongoing effort to ensure that how we define words reflects changes in language—and life,” said John Kelly, a senior editor at Dictionary.com, in a news release.

“Among our many new entries are thousands of deeper, dictionary-wide revisions that touch us on our most personal levels: how we talk about ourselves and our identities, from race to sexual orientation to mental health. Our revisions are putting people, in all their rich humanity, first, and we’re extremely proud of that.”

The update includes the capitalization of Black, an increasingly popular move by many websites and news organizations as White America begins to reckon with race.

The website called the move “a mark of respect and recognition that’s in line with capitalizing other cultures and ethnicities.” It also added terms like Afro-Latina, Afro-Latino, Afro-Latinx, brownface, Filipina, Filipinx, Pinay, Pinoy and Pinxy.

It replaces ‘homosexual’

In the update, the word “gay” replaced “homosexual,” and “gay sexual orientation” replaced “homosexuality.” The decision was made to remove “the implication of a medical diagnosis, sickness, or pathology when describing normal human behaviors and ways of being,” Dictionary.com said in its release.

The website added other LGBTQ terms as well, including “ace,” “asexual,” “deadname” and “gender-inclusive.”

It updates language around suicide

Dictionary.com also updated its language around suicide — replacing its previous wording of “commit suicide” with “die by suicide” or “end one’s life.”

There were some fun additions, too, like the acronym “GOAT,” or greatest of all time, and “amirite” (the website used it in a sentence for convenience: “College admissions essays are exercises in creative writing, amirite?!”)

Here’s a look at more of the added terms:

  • Afro-Latina: of or relating to Black Latinas with African ancestry.
  • Afro-Latino: of or relating to Black Latinos with African ancestry.
  • Afro-Latinx: of or relating to Black Latinx with African ancestry (used in place of the masculine form Afro-Latino or the feminine form Afro-Latina).
  • alcohol use disorder: a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by alcohol abuse or dependence, as compulsive use of alcoholic beverages, the development of physical or psychological symptoms upon reducing or ceasing intake, and decreased ability to function socially and professionally.
  • amirite: an informal variant spelling of the phrase “am I right” used to elicit agreement or solidarity at the end of an observation, or used facetiously to undermine or mock the preceding observation.
  • assistance animal: an animal that is able to provide physical or emotional assistance to a person living with a disability, as alerting a deaf person to the sound of a doorbell.
  • biromantic: noting or relating to a person who is romantically attracted to people of two specific and distinct gender identities, as both men and women.
  • brownface: imitation of a minority group member’s appearance, speech, traditional dress, etc., by a person who is not a member of that group.
  • deadname: the previous name of someone who has changed that name, especially the pretransition first name of a trans person.
  • dead white male: one of a group of white male writers, scientists, or other historical figures whose works have traditionally dominated the field or been a disproportionate part of the school curriculum in the West.
  • DGAF: to not care at all (a euphemistic initialism used to indicate an indifferent or unbothered attitude, without explicit vulgarity).
  • ecoanxiety: anxiety caused by a dread of environmental perils, especially climate change, and a feeling of helplessness over the potential consequences for those living now and even more so for those of later generations.
  • emotional labor: the sum of small acts performed by one person to make other people’s lives more pleasant and to protect them from negativity, including hiding the effort required to do so.
  • Filipinx: of or relating to natives or inhabitants of the Philippines (used in place of the masculine form Filipino or the feminine form Filipina).
  • gender-inclusive: relating to or intended for any gender; gender-neutral.
  • GOAT: greatest of all time.
  • jabroni: a stupid, foolish, or contemptible person; loser.
  • janky: untrustworthy; disreputable.
  • MeToo: a social media hashtag of solidarity used by survivors of sexual harassment and sexual assault in a public disclosure of a past or current personal experience in order to demonstrate the prevalence of abuse:
  • Pinxy: of or relating to natives or inhabitants of the Philippines (used in place of the masculine form Pinoy or the feminine form Pinay); Filipinx.
  • sharent: a parent who frequently shares such personal information on social media.
  • swole: (especially of a man) very muscular.
  • techlash: a strong negative reaction or backlash against the largest technology companies, or their employees or products.
  • trans+: of or relating to people with gender expressions outside traditional norms, as transgender, genderqueer, agender, or nonbinary.
  • Twitch: the proprietary name of a livestreaming video platform, primarily delivering video game content with audio commentary and concurrent online chat among viewers.
  • whitesplain: (of a white person) to comment on the minority experience or explain racism to a person of color in a condescending or blaming way, as to point out accommodating behaviors that the victim of racism might have adopted to diffuse interracial conflict.
  • zhuzh: to make (something) more lively and interesting, stylish, or appealing, as by a small change or addition (usually followed by up).

EU’s identity crisis laid bare by coronavirus as bloc stares down barrel of destruction

In July, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen presided over a deadlock regarding the bloc’s economic response to the coronavirus pandemic. The bloc only managed to reach an agreement two days later than anticipated after arduous negotiations. Leaders reached a historic agreement for a £675billion coronavirus pandemic recovery fund on the summit’s fifth day after tense disagreement. Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte had provided the strongest opposition to the plans on the table — which were said to have argued for a cap of £316billion worth of grants — preferring loans of strict conditions.

The recovery fund had originally set £450billion to be handed out as grants and £226billion in loans.

As tempers flared during the small hours, Mr Macron banged his fist on the table, saying he was ready to walk out if “sterile blockages” continued.

Ms von der Leyen said the negotiations, lasting more than 90 hours, had been “worth it” and that the EU could not be accused this time of doing “too little, too late”.

While the bloc celebrated its breakthrough, the EU’s image has still been marred by failings throughout the pandemic.

Mark Leonard of European Council on Foreign Relations polling, highlighted a poll in which Brussels received mixed messaging.

Mr Leonard said this week: “Across Europe, most people think the EU has failed to live up to its responsibilities during the pandemic.

“There is no appetite for a United States of Europe or further institution-building in Brussels.

“However, COVID-19 has taught them how alone Europeans are in the world. Faced with an existential threat, large majorities across the continent realised that no one was there to help them – not the EU, international institutions, or Europe’s allies.

“Yet at the same time, with unsentimental logic, most citizens across the EU country now understand that only through cooperation within the EU can they avoid getting swept away by pandemics, bullying countries, and climate change.

READ MORE: Brexit trade talks exploded after EU’s attack on David Frost

However, Mr Leonard warns in his column for CapX this week that while some Europeans feel they have no other option that the European Project, more mistakes could threaten its unity.

He added: “It should be a sobering paradox that this strong public appetite for European action is based on the EU’s failure – its absence during the crisis when it was needed most.

“Europeans are disappointed that the EU failed when it was tested.

“And if national and EU leaders don’t rectify this quickly and make sure that the recovery plan displays real change, they could end up creating not a Hamiltonian moment, but a eurosceptic one.”



Jack the Ripper unmasked: Note could finally expose serial killer's identity

Jack the Ripper became one of the most prolific serial killers in history after he engaged in a brutal murderous and mutilation spree during the late 1800s in Whitechapel, London. The deaths of five female prostitutes were attributed to him, some of whom he removed the uteruses of after the fatal attacks. For centuries, the monster behind these murders’ true identity has remained a mystery but now experts believe the case might finally be solved. 

They claim that an “anti-semetic note” that police discovered near to the crime scene of Jack the Ripper’s fourth victim, Catherine Eddowes, held vital clues.

The supposedly offensive message was immediately removed by authorities out of fear it would incite racial violence against the religious community.

The words, written in white chalk, read: “The Jews are the men that will not be blamed for nothing.”

Below the graffiti was part of Eddowes’ “bloodstained apron”, which suggested to crime historian Donald Rumbelow that the note was written by Jack the Ripper.

But criminal profiler Pat Brown had a slightly altered take on the meaning behind the message after she noted that on the night of the killing and near to the crime scene, a Jewish socialist event was being held.

At that time in Whitechapel, there was a lot of antisemetic feeling and she believed the killer may have attended the meeting. 

Brown said: “If he was there, he might still have that in his head, so he still has that rage that he wants to tell society about.

“He thinks ‘Everybody blames me for everything, they are blaming me for nothing!’ and so he goes to write on the wall.”

She believes he was unable to accurately write down his thoughts – through spelling and grammatical errors – due to a dark secret.

Brown said: “I believe it was just Jack losing his own cognitive skills while writing that from his syphilis and his rage.”

It’s been a long-held theory that Jack the Ripper may have contracted syphilis from a prostitute and that’s why he took his own form of barbaric vengeance out upon sex workers. 

His decision to remove the uterus has been interpreted as a direct attack on the “essence of being a woman” – which experts believe he removed in mark of hatred of womankind.

Brown believed the murderer could have been a Jewish tradesman from the area, specifically a butcher due to his “anatomical knowledge” and ability with a blade. 

But, she added: “Serial killers come from all races – they are white, they are black, they are hispanic, they are everything – because quite frankly psychopathy doesn’t know, it’s not just one group of people. 

“So in this particular instance, I think that Jack the Ripper is Jewish but being Jewish has nothing to do with being Jack the Ripper.”  

Her finger pointed to Jacob Levy during the 2010 episode of Amazon Prime show ‘Mystery Files’, because he fit that exact profile and was known to police before they discarded him as a suspect.

The modern technique of Geo profiling also suggests he could be the killer due to both his home and butcher’s shop being within a nearby radius of the murders. 

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Brown said: “If you have a butchers shop and a key to it you can slip right back through the streets.

“You can hide your little treasures in the butchers shop and then wash-off and go straight home.”

A statement from his wife at the time also casts suspicion over not only his whereabouts during the killings but also his mental health. 

Brown recalled: “His wife said ‘Yes, I was having problems with him. He was failing in the business, he wasn’t doing his job anymore, and he’s wandering all over the streets all night long and I don’t know where he is.’”

Levy had a history of petty crime, which landed him in jail after he stole meat from his boss, which the expert claims is an indicator of his increasing psychopathic intent.

Another potentially damning piece of evidence was revealed in a doctor’s notes shortly before he died in 1891 – two years after the Ripper killings ceased. 

It was claimed that he “heard strange noises” and felt “compelled to do immoral deeds” – both symptoms indicate late-stage psychosis, which can be caused by syphilis.

Brown clarified: “He was a married man with some children but he had syphilis.”

A tip-off from an eyewitness of Jack the Ripper’s fourth crime also gave an indication that it could have been Levy too.

The individual refused to give further information other than the man was three inches shorter than his victim – making him roughly 5ft 3in, the same height as the suspected killer.

The man was a rival Jewish butcher, who they believe would have known Levy because their shops were near to one another. 

Brown said: “My conclusion that Jacob Levy was Jack the Ripper… I’m fairly sure about all the evidence, and it does support this more than anybody else out there.”



Jack the Ripper's true identity blocked by Catholic Church – shock claim from surgeon

The infamous Jack the Ripper’s last victim is said to have been buried in St Patrick’s Catholic cemetery in Leytonstone, east London, but Church graveyard authority has refused to allow an exhumation. A retired surgeon called Doctor Wynne Weston-Davies has argued the Ripper’s last victim, known as Mary Jane was the street name used by his great aunt, Elizabeth Weston-Davies, while working as a prostitute and that his great aunt is buried in the cemetery. The surgeon alleges Jack the Ripper was in fact Mary Jane’s former husband, a journalist called Francis Spurzheim Craig.

Dr Weston-Davies believes Mr Craig killed his wife because of his shame that his marriage to her had collapsed and because she had returned to prostitution.

The surgeon claimed Mr Craig murdered his wife then killed four other women as “cover” for his crime.

Doctor Weston-Davies has detailed his theory in his book, The Real Mary Kelly.

The surgeon wishes to exhume her body to gain DNA evidence that may back his claim.

But he has had his objective blocked by a Catholic charity which owns the graveyard, called the Secular Clergy Common Fund.

Doctor Weston-Davies said the Secular Clergy Common Fund told him: “The Fund, as the authority controlling the burial ground, would object to exhumation as this would disturb the remains of other persons in the cemetery.”

The surgeon needs DNA evidence to see if he is related to Mary Jane Kelly as this would then prove she was in fact his great aunt Elizabeth Weston-Davies, and thus would help his claim that the Ripper was in fact his great aunt’s husband Mr Francis Spurzheim Craig.

Speaking to the Daily Mail Dr Weston-Davies said: “I am confident we can exhume that coffin cleanly.

READ MORE: Fred West’s gushing letters to Rose West from behind prison walls

The incidents mostly happened in the Eastend of London, mostly in Whitechapel which was a crime-ridden quarter where vice violence and drunkenness flourished.

The East End was where most of the outcasts of London, the slums were filthy and had the worst overcrowding and highest death rates.

Amongst the chaotic conditions of the slums the Ripper stalked the streets at night and murdered five women.

The five murdered women were Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, and Mary Jane Kelly.

They are known as the “canonical five”.

Express.co.uk has contacted in St Patrick’s Catholic Church and the Secular Clergy Common Fund separately for comment.



Glasgow stabbing: Police confirm identity of the man who went on deadly rampage

Police in Scotland have named the attacker who went on a rampage at West Geroge Street on Friday. 

The 28-year-old from Sudan was shot dead by police after injuring six people. 

The police said: “The identity is based on information the deceased provided to the Home Office earlier this year. 

“Police Scotland continue to investigate the circumstances surrounding the incident in Glasgow.

“The police discharge of firearms resulting in a fatality will always continue to be fully investigated by the Police Investigations and Review Commissioner.

“Both of those inquiries, which take place under the direction of the Lord Advocate, are ongoing and it would not be appropriate to speculate either about the events or the outcomes of these investigations.”

More to follow…