The report found that the money generated by football and basketball programs — whose majority of players are Black — pays for the salaries of coaches and administrators, is used to upgrade facilities the teams use, and finances non-revenue sports played mostly by affluent White student athletes.
The findings come at a time when the years long debate continues to rage over whether college athletes should be paid to play in addition to the scholarships they get that fund their education.
Craig Garthwaite, lead author of the study, told CNN the amount of money in sports has increased exponentially, in some cases nearly doubling over the past 10 years.
“In any other setting, your key input as a business would receive wages that look like the benefit that they provide to the business,” he said. “But here the players are artificially constrained from being able to do that.”
The NCAA did not respond to CNN’s request for comment.
Huge jump in salaries for football coaches
The data collected produced some key findings: disparities between Black and White student-athletes, socioeconomic status, spending on coaches salaries and spending on collegiate facilities.
“We took every player, in every sport, not just the revenue sports, and tracked them back to their high school and calculated the average family income for students that went to that high school,” Garthwaite said. “So we can actually show that it’s not just the sports that lose money and that survive because football and basketball provide them with extra funds, it’s not just that the students are more likely to be White, but they tend to come from richer families, they’ve gone to high schools where the average family income is higher.”
The average salaries of Power 5 football coaching staffs at public schools grew from $4.8 to $9.8 million from 2008 to 2018, nearly doubling over the past 10 years, according to the data. And football coaches, aren’t the only coaches who saw exponential salary increases, the study shows. Coaches for all other sports at Power 5 schools have also seen an increase from $7.3 to $12.5 million — roughly a 70 percent increase over the past 10 years.
“Because they can’t pay them, they’re going to pay them in these ridiculous facilities but that seems like a very inefficient way of rewarding players,” Garthwaite said. “What if instead we put that money in a trust fund for the future and health and economic needs of players who don’t end up playing professional football. That might seem like a better use of that money.”
Less than 7 percent of generated revenue goes to football and basketball players in the form of academic scholarships that cover the cost of attendance and a stipend for living expenses, according to Garthwaite and the data.
Based on IRS tax filings, the combined revenue of Power 5 conferences increased by nearly 260 percent from 2008 to 2018, the data shows. Over the same time period, revenues for the NFL and NBA grew by approximately 90 and 110 percent, respectively.
For NCAA, new rules are ‘a challenge’
College athletes in California would also be able to hire an agent licensed by the state to represent them in any deals. Other states are looking at similar possible legislation.
“Figuring out all the details of it, it’s going to be a challenge,” NCAA President Mark Emmert told CNN last year. “It’s a much more complex issue than most people see it as. I think schools are going to be able to work through this process and come up with rules that makes great sense for the student athletes and allow universities to continue their collegiate model of athletics.”
And though student-athletes in theory, would profit from their name, image and likeness, the NCAA said the new rules should continue to make compensation for play impermissible and that athletes are not employees of the universities.
Travelers wearing face shields and protective masks walk with their luggage inside Tom Bradley International Terminal at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in Los Angeles, California, U.S., on Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020.
Bing Guan | Bloomberg | Getty Images
Late-summer getaways helped lift air travel during the Labor Day weekend but the coronavirus pandemic has left its mark on what has shaped up to be a dismal season for airlines.
The number of people screened by the Transportation Security Administration reached 968,673 on Friday, the highest since March 16, agency data released on Monday showed. During the Friday-through-Monday holiday weekend, close to 3.3 million passengers passed through TSA checkpoints, down nearly 60% from the holiday weekend in 2019. That, however, is an improvement from the depths of the coronavirus crisis in April when passenger volume was off by more than 95%.
From Memorial Day through Labor Day weekend, which comprises what is generally the busiest and most lucrative time of year for airlines, TSA screened 65 million people, down nearly 76% from the 269 million it screened on the same dates last year.
Airlines are now scrambling to create more flexible policies to win over travelers, particularly as what is generally the slower fall season followed by the end-of-year holidays approach. Among the changes is a scrapping of domestic ticket-change fees by United last month. A move Delta and American followed with similar policies.
Facing a dearth of business travel as companies are still reluctant to fly workers for meetings and events during the pandemic, carriers are also adding service to leisure destinations near mountains or beaches to try to fill planes.
Labor Day celebrates the American labour movement and workers contributions to the US. Mrs Trump posted a tweet honouring the American workforce, linking to Donald Trump’s official statement on the holiday. But the message was met with divided reactions from Twitter users.
Mrs Trump’s message thanked workers for their efforts during the coronavirus pandemic.
She said: “This Labor Day, we recognise & celebrate the hard working American workforce.
“Thank you for all you have done to keep our country moving, even in the most unprecedented times.”
Mr Trump added in his official statement he expresses his “deep gratitude” to the American workforce.
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Twitter users took issue with the First Lady’s comments, and savaged her role in the US Government.
One user asked Mrs Trump: “What work did you do exactly?”
Another added: “No one in this family has ever known a hard days work.”
Later, another user said: “What the hell would you know about America’s Work force? And do you Really care!?”
Other’s targeted Mr Trump’s administration while replying to the First Lady.
Mrs Trump, as First Lady, is the official hostess of the White House, and organises official ceremonies and functions of state.
She also organised the anti-bullying campaign Be Best, which she founded in 2018.
Recently, she made a headline speech capping off day two of the Republican National Convention.
Speaking from the White House, she said: “I believe that we need my husband’s leadership now more than ever in order to bring us back once again to the greatest economy and the strongest country ever known.”
The First Lady also recently courted controversy over alleged comments about Ivanka Trump.
According to former White House official Stephanie Winston Wolkoff, the First Lady referred to Ms Trump as “princess”.
Mrs Trump allegedly referred to Ms Trump and her husband Jared Kushner as “snakes”.
Stephanie Grisham, the First Lady’s chief of staff, dismissed Ms Wolkoffs book and said: “The book is not only full of mistruths and paranoia, it is based on some imagined need for revenge.”
But in much of the country, gas is even cheaper. Nearly a third of gas stations surveyed have gas for less than $2, according to the Oil Price Information Service, which compiles gas price data for AAA. There are eight states – Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Alabama, Arkansas, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee — where the average price is below $2.
In the 32 states outside the East and West coasts, gas prices haven’t been this cheap over Labor Day weekend in 16 years, according to OPIS. That’s true even as many states have raised gas taxes during that time.
The reduced demand for gasoline due to the Covid-19 pandemic has caused a glut of both oil and gas, driving down prices.
And cheap gas is likely to be around through the end of the year according to Tom Kloza, OPIS’s global head of energy analysis.
“Some of these records stand no chance. The heat out West this summer, its intensity and longevity, has been nothing short of amazing,” said CNN meteorologist Pedram Javaheri.
Heat warnings include nearly all of California and stretch from Arizona to Oregon.
California Gov. Gavin Newsom has declared a state of emergency ahead of the heat, with the goal of alleviating heat-induced demands on the power grid. An alert has been issued to California residents to conserve power between 3 p.m. and 10 p.m., when demand is highest.
The National Weather Service office in Los Angeles is warning of “rare, dangerous very possible deadly” heat across the region. Highs around Los Angeles could reach 110 degrees on Saturday and Sunday.
Long Beach, California, is forecasting a high of 108 on Saturday, which is very close to their all-time record high of 111 degrees. Burbank’s all-time record high is 114, and they are forecast to hit at least 111 both Saturday and Sunday. Even Northern California will be sweltering. Redding will be well into the triple digits, possibly reaching 111 on Saturday and 112 on Sunday.
Altogether, the West could set more than 100 record high minimum temperatures and more than 150 record high temperatures, which could prove dangerous for a lot of people.
“Many are surprised to learn that heat is the deadliest of weather events. In fact, heat kills nearly twice as many Americans each year than do tornadoes and nearly three times more than hurricanes,” Javaheri says.
“Studies suggest that more lives are lost due to heat in areas of lower income as they are less likely to have access to air conditioning or be able to leave it on during excessive heat events,” he added.
The extreme heat will also elevate fire danger in a region already struggling to combat wildfires.
Other regions face extreme heat
Heat will also be a problem in the Deep South, where temperatures have been in the 90s, with heat indexes in the triple digits.
Southwest Louisiana and East Texas, which were both hit hard by Hurricane Laura, still have thousands of residents without power. This only makes the heat even more dangerous.
Even places like Denver will feel the ultimate weather whiplash during the next few days, with temperatures nearing 100 degrees this weekend, then possible snow two days later.
“Denver will see record heat through Labor Day weekend, with highs potentially reaching 100 degrees. Temperatures take a nosedive on Tuesday as a strong system brings wintry weather to the area,” the National Weather Service office in Boulder said.
“Please keep arms and legs inside the roller coaster at all times,” the office joked.
Usually, the holiday takes place on the last day of summer holidays.
Many children head back to school the same week in many of the USA districts, particularly in the northeast.
Labor Day is usually celebrated all over the USA with parades, picnics, BBQs, fireworks and other public gatherings.
However, this year parades and official events have mostly been cancelled due to the coronavirus pandemic.